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Sikkim State Council of Science and Technology











The State                                                   

 Total Geographical Area         :          7096km2  

 Status                                         :          22nd state of Indian Union.       

 Geographical location              :          270 N to 280 N & 870 E to 880 E.

 Population                                 :          540,493

 Decimal population growth:

 Absolute                                    :         134,036 i.e. 32.98%

 Density                                       :         76/Sqkm

 Sex ratio                                      :         857F/1000M

 Persons in 0-6 age group

                              Absolute                                       % to total population

     Total -77,170                                     14.285

     Male- 38,865                                     13.48

     Female-38,314                                   15.19


   Absolute                                          Rate

   Person-322,828                                   69.68

   Male -191,326                                      76.73

   Female-38,314                                     131,502

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large figure

Source: Provisional Census Book, Directorate of Census operation, Sikkim-2001)

Administratively the state, Sikkim divides itself into four districts viz. North, East, South, and West. Sikkim a biological hot spot is well known for its biodiversity. Due to its varied climatic conditions the state harbors a wide variety of flora and fauna. This rich flora of the state is not only a boon to the local people but it has been attracting plant hunters, tourists and nature admirers for the last three centuries. The vegetation of the region is well characterized predominantly by tropical deciduous, subtropical, wet temperate, sub alpine, moist alpine and dry alpine forests.

Type of forest and Altitude

Tropical Moist Deciduous                    -    300-900m

Subtropical                                             -   900 -  1800m

Wet temperate                                     -   1800-2400m

Sub alpine (Rhododendron forest)  -   2700-3700m

Moist alpine                                            -   3700m

Dry alpine/alpine meadows             -   4400m -above and moorland


The types of vegetation in Sikkim have been divided as:
1. East Himalayan wet temperate Forest
2. Broad leaved hill
3 Sub alpine Rhododendron
4. Gregarious Sal
5. Scrub/Alpine Scrub
6 Moist Alpine- Alpine Meadow
7. Non forest Area.

   The hill forest shows highest species diversity and lower diversity in man made plantation. The diversity rich areas are Pangthang, Rumtek, Rongli, Lichen, Ravangla, Varshey & Dentam. West& North Sikkim has vast stretch of Rhododendron Forests. Several endemic Spp. also grows here. Kanchendzonga National Park exhibits a large number of species of rhododendron. Rarely found else where. The state has wildlife five sanctuaries. Rhododendron inhabits mainly in Sub alpine (Rhododendron forest) where it grows in association with Rubus, Juniperous Spp. but starts inhabiting from Subtropical forest (arboreum).

About 36 endemic Spp. have been found in Sikkim; some of them are as follows:

Aconitum forex
Ophiorrhiza truetleri,
Chirita oblongifolia,
Actinodaphne Sikkimensis,
Elaeocarpus sikkimensis,
Rhododendron sikkimensis
Mahonia sikkimensis.


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   Amongst the many floral treaties of Sikkim Himalaya one of the earliest ones may be found over the genus Rhododendron (Gk. rhodo = red, dendrons = tree ).  



Rarity Status
L.K Rai Notes


  Orchid known for their brilliance in colors, unusual shapes attractive growth habits, variety in fragrance and exquisite beauty can attract any nature lovers.





The Genus



Medicinal Plant

Sikkim with its total geographical area of 7,096 sq km is bestowed with a huge diversity of flora and fauna.






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