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Datura stramonium Linn.       

Species

Datura stramonium Linn.

Local Name

Dhaturo (Nep).

Synonym

D. stramonium tatula

Family

Solanaceae.

Habitat

A coarse weedy annual plant reaching over 3 feet in height. Usually found in rich waste ground.

Distribution Distributed in temperate Himalayas.
Sikkim

Gangtok, Ranipool, Gyalshing.

Out side

Kashmir, West Bengal (Darjeeling, Kalimpong), Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Europe and U.S.A, Bhutan.

General

Tropical America widely cultivated and naturalized.

Morphological

 A coarse annual plant, 1- 3m high, glabrous or minutely pubescent. Leaves ovate toothed or sinuate. Flowers large, white. Calyx long tubular, herbaceous; corolla long, tubular, funnel- shaped mouth wide; stamens attached near the base of the tube, filaments filif6rm. Ovary 2- or spuriously 4- celled. Capsule ellipsoid, spinous. Seeds many, compressed, rugose.

Flowering

June-November.

Fruiting

September -March

History

Datura, a 16th century name latinised from the Persian and Arabic names for D. fastuosa. Stromonium was the name of Datura metel L. at Venice in the middle of the 16th century, where it was cultivated; and the plant is figured under that title by Tragus and Fuchsius. The origin of the name is not evident, but many perhaps are an italianised contraction of Greek Letters. D. Stramonium seems to have been a later introduced into Europe than D. metel but as it rapidly spread and became a common plant the name of the latter was transferred to it.

Parts

Fruits, seeds, flowers and leaves.

Status

Low risk.

Phytochemistry Components of polar flavanoid glycosides determined; sugar portion consisted mainly of glucose glucose and glucose- galactose; some glycosides also present as acetyl derivatives of caffiec, p- coumaric and ferulic acids (Pharm. Acta. Helv 1970, 45, 153, Chem. Abstr. 1970, 72, 118454r); hyoscine N- oxide from seeds, roots, leaves and stems (J.Pharm.Pharmocol 1973, 25,116; Chem. Abstr. 1974, 80, 130477 y); leaves yeilded, -sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, withanolide 1, mp 258' (daturalactone) and stramonolide mp.2650 (Khim Prir Soedin. 1976, 12, 670; Chem Abstr. 1977, 86, 117600n); triterpene alcohols- lanost 8 ene 3, -ol (2.0) lanosterol (tr) and 24- methylenelanost- 8 en- 3, -ol (tr) in addition to cylcloartanol (tr), cycloartenol (340), 24 methylenecyclloartanol (70), lupenol (2.0),  amyrin (53.0%) daturaolone (tr) and daturadiol (tr)-  identified in seeds (Phytochemistry 1977, 16, 1723) total alkaloids 1.25- 0.34% in aerila parts; hyoscyamine, hyoscine ,skimmianine, tropine and 2,6 dihydroxytropane isolated (Khim. Prir. Soedin. 1977, 13,126; Chem. Abstr. 1979, 90, 51420c); detection of cholesterol, cholest- 7enol, campesterol, 24 methyllenecholesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol, 28- iisofucosterol, 31- norlanosterol, obtusifoliol, 31 norcycloartenol, cycloeucalenol gramisterol, citrostadienol, lanost- 8- enool, cycloartenol, lanosterol, amyrin, lupeol and 24- methylenecycloartanol in seed oil by GLC and TLC (Hanguk Nonghwa Hakhoe Chi 1978, 21, 51; chem. Abstr. 1979, 90, 100109 U); hyoscyamine, hyoscine and atropine from stem and seeds (Dokl. Akad. Nauk. Todzh SR 1978, 21, 34; Chem. Abstr. 1979, 90, 51420c); isolation and structure of new withanolide  withastromonolide from leaves (Khim. Prir. Soedin 1978, 14, 91; chem. Abstr. 1978, 89, 43962v); four 4K- methylsterols- 31- norianost- 9(11)- enoI (10), 24- methyl- 31- norlanost- 9 (11)- enol (tr), 4K, 24- dimethylcholesta- 7,  24- dienol (tr) anmd 31- norcycloartanol (tr), along with 31- norcy -cloartenol (6.0), cycloeucalenol (9.0), 31 norlanost- 8- enol (tr), 31- norlanosterol (2.0), obtusifoliol (13.0), 4K, 14K, 24- trimethylcholesta- 8, 24- dienol (tr), 4K- methylcholestaenol (1.0) lopohenol (6.0), 24 methyllophenol (tr), 24- ethyllophenol (tr) gramisterol (43.0) and citrostadienol (13.0%) isolated from seed oil.
Agrocultivation

D. stramonium is propagated through seeds. Seeds can be directly drilled in furrows or the plant can be raised in nursery and transplanted in the field. Transplanting gives better results. In case of direct seedling, seeds are drilled in rows at a distance of 45- 60cm. before preparation of the field. The ideal time of seed sowing is March- April in temperate areas where in case of north Indian plains  the seed are sown in November.

In case of transplanting, the seeds are planted in raised nursery beds consisting of farmyard manure and soil. After the seeds are broadcasted, the bed is covered with a layer of sand and farmyard manure. The bed should be kept moist. After the seedling reach to certain heights (4- 6 weeks). They are transplanted in the field in May and June in case of temperate areas and in November and December in case of subtropical areas. The seedlings are placed at the distance of 30- 45 cm in rows and 45- 60 cm. The field is ploughed and deseeds several times before planting. Pre-planting irrigation should be given before preparation of the field. The ideal time of seed sowing is March-  April in temperate areas where in case of north Indian plains the seeds are sown in November.

In case of transplanting, the seeds are planted in raised nursery beds consisting of farmyard manure and soil. After the seeds are broadcasted, the bed is covered with a layer of sand and farmyard manure. The bed should be kept moist. After the seedlings reach to certain heights (4- 6 weeks), they are transplanted to the fields in May and June in case of temperate areas and in November and December in case of sub-tropical areas. The seedlings are placed at the distance of 30- 45 cm in rows and 45- 60cm apart.

Reference

 

1. Bentley, Robert and Trimen, Henry (1992). Medicinal Plants (Vol. 3). Published by Prashant Gahlot for Allied Books Centre, Dehradun. 192.

2. Chatterjee, Asima, Satyesh Chandra Pakrashi, (1995). The Treatise of Indian Medicinal Plants (Vol.4). Publications and Information Directorate, New Delhi. 175- 176.

3. Chopra, R.N., S. L. Nayar, I.C. Chopra (1999). Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. National Institute of Science Communication, CSIR, New Delhi, 91.

4. Hussain, Akhtar (1993). Medicinal Plants and Their Cultivation. Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 17- 19.

5. Progress Report of the Project "Studies on Medicinal Plants of Sikkim" (1998- 2001). State Council of Science and Technology for Sikkim.

6. Tsarong J. Tsewang (1994). Tibetan Medicinal Plants. Tibetan Medical Publications, Kalimpong, West Bengal.92.

Medicinal

Fruit: Sedative but intoxicating in large doses; juice is applied to scalp for curing dandruff and loss of hairs.

Seeds: Anti- inflammatory, analgesic, anthelmintic. Used against stomachal and intestinal pain from worm infestation toothache and fever from inflammations.

Leaves: Anodyne, antiseptic and narcotic and is applied to boils and sores.

Flowers: Cures earache.

All parts of the plant are narcotic specially the seeds, which have a stupefying effect and can be fatal.

Ayurvedic  
Unani  
Traditional

The seed paste though poisonous is applied externally as anti inflammation. Leaves mixed with tobacco are smoked as cigar to relieve from asthma. (Project Report- 2000; M.E.E.S.1- 1- 1991).

Others  
Prepartation  
Picture  

 

Rhododendron

   Amongst the many floral treaties of Sikkim Himalaya one of the earliest ones may be found over the genus Rhododendron (Gk. rhodo = red, dendrons = tree ).  

 

History

Species
Distribution
Rarity Status
L.K Rai Notes
Uses
Bibliography
 

Orchid

  Orchid known for their brilliance in colors, unusual shapes attractive growth habits, variety in fragrance and exquisite beauty can attract any nature lovers.

 

Introduction

History

Cultivation

The Genus

Bibliography

 

Medicinal Plant

Sikkim with its total geographical area of 7,096 sq km is bestowed with a huge diversity of flora and fauna.

 
 Introduction
.Cultivation
 Species
Bibliography
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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