Basic Information



Species                       : Hymenodictyon excelsum Wall

Local Name                 : Setikat, Latkaram (Nep)

Synonym                     :

Family                          : Rubiaceae

Habitat                        : It is a tree common on loose dry deposits of boulders and debris along the base of the outer hills in the sub- Himalayan tract. It is also frequently met with sandy or stony soil or alluvial ground near rivers and in Savannah lands.

Distribution                : Distributed from tropical to sub- temperate region.

Sikkim                         : Rhenock, Rongli, Rangpo, Jorethang.

Out side                      : West Bengal, Bihar.


Morphological information

A deciduous tree, attaining a height of 10-14 m. Leaves ovate elliptic or almost orbicular, abruptly pedicelled, clustered and borne in drooping panicles. Fruits ellipsoid, many seeded capsules on thick decurved pedicles. Seeds imbricating upwards.

Flowering                    : April-July

Fruiting                       : April-July

History                        :

Parts                           : Inner bark.

Status                        : Vulnerable


 Aesculin (B- methylaesinietin), hymexelrim (apioglucoside of scopoletin), scopoletin, hymenodictyonim (a toxic alkaloids); alanine, arginine, cystine, glycine, leucine;fruitore galactose, glucose (bark); anthragallol, 2- benzylxanthopurpurin damnacanthal and nordamnacanthal, lucidin, 6- methyalizarin morindone, subiadin and its 1-methylester soranjidol, isolated from root (with India 1959,5,149,CSIR, New Delhi; J.Chem. Soc. C., 1971,2001; J. nat. Prad, 1988, 51, 959; 1. Just Chem. India, 1990,62, 206; C.A., 1991,115, 179310).


Agrocultivation         : The tree can be propagated artificially, though with some difficulty; stump planting gives better results than entire transplanting.



Inner bark is used as a febrifuge, astringent and antiperiodic, especially for tertian ague. The bark is used fresh or in dried form. The crushed and powdered bark is orally used for treating hemorrhoids (piles).




1. Rai, Lalit kumar & Sharma, Eklabya (1994). Medicinal Plants of the Sikkim Himalaya. Prishen Singh, Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun. 48.

2. Chattedee, Asima and Pakrashi, Satyesh Chandra (1997). The Treatise on Indian Medicinal Plants (Vol. 5). National Institute of Science Communication, New Delhi. 84- 85.

3. Anonymous (1959). The Wealth of India (Vol. 5). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 149- 151.

4. Progress Report of the Project "Studies on Medicinal Plants of Sikkim" (1998- 2001). State Council of Science and Technology for Sikkim.