Basic Information



Species                       : Euphorbia hirta Linn.

Local Name                  : Dudhe Jhar (Nep).

Synonym                     : E. pilulifera (L), Chamaesyle hirta (L).

Family                          : Euporbiaceae.

Habitat                       : It is an annual herb, thrives well in dry and open places, weeds of roadside lawns and cultivated ground.

Distribution                : Distributed throughout the tropical, subtropical and sub- temperate parts ofIndia.

Sikkim                         : Gangtok, Rorathang.

Out side                      : West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Bhutan (Phuntsoling and Gaylegphug districts, Punakha, Tongsa and Mongar districts).

Morphological information

Annual, 15- 50 cm high erect or ascending hispid with long often yellowish crisped hairs; stems usually terete; branches often 4- angled. Leaves opposite, 1.3- 3.8 by 0.6- 1.6 cm obliquely oblong- lanceolate or obovate- lanceolate, acute or subacute, serrulate or dentate, dark green above, pale beneath, base usually unequal- sided, acute or rounded; main nerves few, distant; petioles distinct, 1.5- 3 mm long; stipules pectinate, soon falling. Involucres numerous, less than 1.25 mm long on a stalk of about the same length, crowded in small axillary shortly pedunculate globose cymes; gland minute, globose, either without a limb a with a very small orbicular white entire one. Capsules 1.25 mm diam, appressedly hairy. Seeds 0.8 mm long, ovoid- trigonous, slightly transversely rugose, light reddish brown.

Flowering                             : May-August.

Fruiting                                : July-October.

History                                :

Parts                                   : Root.

Status                                 : Low risk


Hentriacontane, myricyl alcohol,  -sitosterol,  -amyrin, friedelin and araxerol (leaves, stem); Kamyrin,  -amyrin acetate, taraxerone, campesterol, euphosterol (C25H390H), phytosterolin, stigmaster -ol, eupharbol hexacosanoate, Kaempferol, leucocynisol, 12- deoxy- 4, hydroxyphorbol-13- dodecanoate- 20- acetate, 12- dexu- 4,- hydroyphorbol- 13- phenyI acetate- 20- acetate, quercitol, aftelin, myricetin, myricitin, quercetin and its 7- glucoside and rhamnoside, quercitin, rutin, xanthorharmin, ingeniol triacetate, L- inositol, myoinositol, L- hexacosanol, n- octaconol and triacontane, amino acids, choline, chlorophenolic, gallic, gluoxalic, pyrivic and shikernic acids, linoleic melissic, oleic, palmitic and protocatechuic acids, tannin and related polyphenols, tinyatoxin from bark and latex.



The juice of the plant is given in dysentery and colic, and the milk applied to destroy warts. A decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. The plant is chiefly used in the affections of childhood, in worms, bowel complaints and cough. It is sometimes prescribed in gonorrhoea. The root is given by the Santals to allay vomiting and the plant nursing when the supply of milk is deficient or fails. The plant is widely used in West Africa as a medicine. On the gold coast, it is ground and mixed with water and then used as an enema. The white juice is used by women to increase the flow of milk. The leaves are used in curing sores; their juice is sometimes squeezed into the eyes to cure eye trouble. A popular astringent and haemostatic in the Philippine Islands. The plant is much used in Guiana, as a febrifuge. As a poultice it is applied to abscesses and inflamed glands. Latex applied to warts.



The disease like chronic bronchitis can be treated by daily administration of root decoction for 5- 6 days. (Nepali System, Project report, 1999).



1. Kirtikar, K.R. and B.D. Basu (1994). Indian Medicinal Plants (Vol. 3). Bishen

Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun. 2197- 2199.

2. Progress Report of the Project "Studies on Medicinal Plants of Sikkim" (1998- 2001). State Council of Science and Technology for Sikkim