Basic Information



Species                      : Cassia javanica  Linn.

Local Name               :

Synonym                   :

Family                        : Fabaceae

Habitat                       : A beautiful, small or medium- sized tree. Thrives well in hot and dry regions

Distribution                : Distributed to tropical and sub- temperate region.

Sikkim                         : Ranipool to Pakyong.

Out side                      : A native of Sumatra and Java. Planted in the Malay Peninsula, Calcutta, Bombay, Andhra Pradesh.

Morphological information

A medium sized tree. Bark smooth dark brown. Branches spreading almost horizontally with alternate, bifarious, spreading flexuous branchlets. Leaves from 15- 30 cm long, alternate, bifarious, pinnate. Leaflets generally from 8- 14 pairs, though on the small lateral floriferous branchlets they are often only from 2- 3- 4 pairs, all very short- petioled, from 2.5- 5 cm long and about half that in breadth, oval, oblong, entire, very obtuse or even marginate and smooth. Petioles without glands. Stipules crescent shaped, lower half narrower and less obtuse, the upper half much broader and emarginated, with a bristle. Racemes terminal on short lateral branchlets. Bracts 10, cordate, cuspidate, 1- flowered. Pedicels long and slender. Calyx of 5, ovate, dull reddish leaflets, many times smaller than the corolla. Petals oblong, differing in size only of a lively pink or rose colour. Stamens 10, all fertile, the 3 lower filaments much longer and having each an oval swelling near the middle and a double curve below it. Anthers on the 3 long filaments ovate; on the other 7 incumbents, with pores at the small end. Ovary long- stalked, awl- shaped, 1- celled, containing numerous seeds attached to the upper suture. Pod cylindric, from 45- 60 cm long and about 2 cm diameter, covered with very dark brown, rather smooth bark. Seed solitary, obovate, a little compressed, the size of a pea, smooth, of a shining brown colour.




Parts: Seeds (Pods).

Status: Cultivated, endangered in wild.


The seeds contain chrysophanol, physcion, two new anthraquinones, 1, 5-dihydroxy- 4, 7- dimethoxy 2- methylanthraquinone- 3- 0- α- L- rhamnopyranoside (C23H24O11, mp 290 degree decomp.) and 1,3,6,7,8- pentahydroxy- 4- lithoxy- 2- methylanthraquinone (C16H12O5, mp 230 degree), and a galactomannan.



The pods are used medicinally as a substitute for C. fistula. They are used as a purgative. The saline extract of seeds showed complete haemaglutinating activity against the red blood cells of fowl. The extract also showed hemolytic reaction. The seeds may be useful as a source of industrial gum


1. Anonymous (1961). The Wealth of India, Publication and Information Directorate. CSIR, New Delhi 345- 346.

2. Kirtikar, K.R. and B.D. Basu. Indian Medicinal Plants with illustrations (Vol.4) 2nd Edition. Oriental Enterprises, Rajpur road, Dehradun, Uttranchal, 1226- 1227.

3. Progress Report of the Project "Studies on Medicinal Plants of Sikkim" (1998- 2001). State Council of Science and Technology for Sikkim.