Basic Information



Species                       : Bischofia javanica Blume.

Local Name                 : Kaijal (Nep), Sumon kung(Lep)

Synonym                    :

Family                         : Euphorbiaceae

Habitat                       : A tree common in moist shady ravines, river banks and swamps.

Distribution                : Distributed to temperate region.

Sikkim                        : Rumtek, Melli forests.

Out side                     : Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu,  Assam, West Bengal,  Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur.

General                      : Himalaya, India, East to China, Taiwan.


Morphological information

A large evergreen tree, bark dark brown hearly smooth,  Leaves alternate,

trifoliate, petiole 6.3-15 cm. Long, stipules 0.  leaflets 7.5-12.5 by 3.8-7.5 cm, elliptic or elliptic oblong, acurninate, crenate, glabrous, rather soft, lateral nerves 6-8 pairs; petioles of the lateral leaflets 5-10 mm long of the terminal 2.5-3.8 cm long.  Flowers minute, dioecious in axillary or lateral paniculate racemes about as long as the petioles. Male flowers 2.5 mm diameter, rather crowded, pedicels 2.5 mm long; sepals 5, concave, covering the young stamens imbricate; petals 0; disk 0; stamens 5; filaments short, antherslarge dehiscing flowers 5mm diameter not crowded; pedicels rather longer than in the male, elongation in fruit; sepals flat ovate, acute, not persistent in fruit, petals 0; disk 0; ovary exerted, glabrous, 3-4 celled; ovules 2 in each cell; styles long; linear, entire.  Fruit 7.5-mm. diameters, brown or black, globose, smooth, seeds 3-4 smooth, shining.

Flowering                  : April-June

Fruiting                     : June-October

History                     :

Parts                        : Leaves, bark.

Status                      : Vulnerable.



 Epifriedelinol acetate, friedelin and -sitosterol isolated from bark (]. Indian Chem. Soc. 1969,46,757).


Agro cultivation       

The plant is propagated through seeds.  The seeds are best sown in September-October in porous soils in boxes or in the nursery and watered continuously.  The beds are covered with straw to ret6ain the moisture in the soil till the seedlings appear above the soil.  Germination begins in 2-3 weeks.  Thereafter the soil is periodically stirred to promote aeration and to curb the growth of weeds.  The seedlings are ready for transplanting when they are 8-10 months old, during the rainy season.  If coffee plantations they are planted at distance of 7-10m. Propagation through stump planting, which gives best results when planted immediately after cutting, has also been found to be successful.



The leaves are astringent; they are used for sores, toothache and some eye diseases.  In Samoa the bark is administered for throat ailments, high fever and burns.



1. Anonymous (1988).  The Wealth of India (Vol.2).  Publications and Information Directorate, DSIR, New Delhi, 154.    2. Kirtikar, K.R. & B.D. Basu (1994). Indian Medicinal plants (Vol.3). Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, 284.     3.   Progress Report of the Project " Studies on Medicinal Plants of Sikkim" (1998-2001).  State Council of Science and Technology for Sikkim.