Basic Information




           Species                       :           Aegle marmelos (L.)Correa

           Local Name                :           Bail (Nep), Lee (Lep)

           Synonym                    :

            Family                        :           Rutaceae

            Habitat                      :           A small or medium sized deciduous tree. The plant occurs

                                                                                                                    wild throughout sub  Himalayan tract and also in Central and

                                                                                                                     South India.

Distribution                :           Distributed in the sub tropical regions, planted all over India.

Sikkim                         :           Kitam, Rangpo, Jorethang, Namthang, Melli, Singtam.

Out side                      :           Bhubaneshwar (Orissa), Himachal Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Darjeeling.

Morphological information

A small glabrous, spiny deciduous tree with sharp straight, axillary spines. Leaves alternate, trifoliate, rarely pentafoliate, leaflets ovate, lanceolate, acuminate. Flowers greenish white, fragrant in short lateral panicles; calyx obscurely 4- 5 toothed; petals 4- 5 imbricate, oblong, gland dotted; stamens numerous. Fruits 5-18cm in diameter, globose, grey or yellow; rind woody, pulp sweet. Seeds numerous embedded in thick orange mucilaginous mass.

Flowering       : February and May.

Fruiting           : February and May.

History           :

Parts               : The fruits (ripe and unripe), root, bark, leaves, flowers and rind of the ripe fruits.

Status             : Cultivated, endangered in wild.



Compound A, mp.160 degree, compound B, mp.195 degree and  -sitosterol from bark; alkaloids A, mp172 degree, and B, mp 136 degree isolated from plant; a phenolic base containing oxazole and pyridine isolated from leaves; (Indian J.Chem. 1971, 9, 763); detection of K phellandrene, p cymine, cineole, K limonene, ethyl n amylkeyone, methyl n heptylketone, citronella, linalool, citral, eugenol, caryophyllene and cuminyl alcohol in essential oil by GLC (Indian oil Soap J.1972, 37, 301; Chem. Abstr. 1974 80, 40922k); Xanthotoxin, 6;7 dimethoxycoumarin, scopoletin, tembamide, umbelliferone, marmesin, marmin, Skemmianine and a glycoside skimmim  from roots (Phytochemistry 1973, 12, 2071); leaves contained tannins, phlobatannin flavan 3 ols, leucoanthocyanins, anthocyanins and flavanol glycosides (J.Inst. Chemists, Calcutta 1975, 47, 79; Chem Abstr. 1975, 83, 144519n); polysaccharides isolated from fruit pulp yielded on hydrolysis galactose (20.4) arabinose (10.7), uronic acid (25.2%) and trace of L rhamnose (Bangladesh J.Sci.Ind Res.1977, 12, 41; Chem. Abstr. 1977, 87, 19727 t); skimianine from bark (Bangladesh J.Sci.Ind.Res.1978, 13, 252; Chem.Abstr. 1979,90,183156 f); a minor lactonic constituent  aegelinol isolated and its stereo structure determined (Phytochemistry 1978, 17, 328); structure of furocoumarine - marmelide (Chem. Ind. 1978, 848); four new alkaloids-O- (3, 3 dimethylallyl) – halifordirinoI (I), N-2 ethoxy- 2- (4- methoxyphenyl) ethyl cinnannamide (II), N-2 methoxy-2[4 (3-3 dimethyllyloxy) phenyl] ethyl cinnamamide (III) and N-2 methoxy 2-(4-methoxyphenyl ethyl cinnamide (IV)- isolated from leaves and their structures determined  (phytochemistry 1978, 17, 1814).


The seedlings can be raised through seeds in the nurseries. An attempt have also been made to raise plantlets through tissue culture. The seeds collected from the trees are sown in June/July in the nursery. Frequent watering should be done after sowing. The seedlings will be ready in one year for transplanting in the field. Root cuttings and layering techniques have also been employed to propagate Bael trees. Budding of one month old bud on two year old root stock during May-July is found to be successful. This method can be applied to produce high quality seedlings. The seedlings are transplanted in the field at the spacing of 10-12 m.



The ripe fruit is acrid, bitter sweet, appetizer, binding, tonic, febrifuge, causes biliousness and "tridosha". removes "vata" and "kapha" good for heart. The root bark is one of the ingredients of "'Dashmool", which enters in the composition of preparations like "Dashmoolasava" and in "Chavanprash”. It is considered as good restorative tonic. Other ayurvedic prepared of Aegle are "Bilva Panchak kuatha". "Bilvadi Churna" and "Bivaldi Taila", Gangadharchurna 2 to 6gm Biluadichurna I to 3g to be taken three times in day with water in dysentery. Fruit pulp 3g to be taken with guda (Jaggery) three times a day in case of dysentery. Gangadhar Churna 1 to 3g to be taken three times a day with water in dysentery.


The ripe fruit is used as tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative well for the heart and the brain. It is an ingredient of "Majun Bawasir", used for piles.


Stems yield a useful gum; fruit is chewed and eaten in case of diarrhoea and dysentery.





1. Thakur, R.S., H.S. Puri, Hussain Akhtar (1989). Major Medicinal Plants Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic plants, Lucknow. 35-36.

2. Singh, Janardhan, Ashok Singh, Subhash Chandra Sharma, Sushil Kumar (1999) Medicinal Plants for Bioprospections. CIMAP, Lucknow. 51-55.

3. Kirtikar, K.R., B.D. Basu (1993). Indian Medicinal Plant. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh. 199-502.

4. Grierson, U.C., D.G. Long (1991). Flora of Bhutan (Vol. 2, Part 1). Royal Botanical Garden, Edinburgh. 10-11.

5. Progress Report of the Project "Studies on Medicinal Plants of Sikkim" (1998-2001). State Council of Science and Technology  for Sikkim.