Scientific Name Amomum subulatum Roxb.
Local Name Elaichi/ Bara elaichi
Family Zingiberaceae Distribution
State/World wide Sikkim, Darjeeling, Arunachal Pradesh, Bhutan, Nepal
Common Name of Disease: 4. RHIZOME ROT
Local Name of Disease -Adua Kuhiney Bimar
Causal Organism -Rhizoctonia solani Khun, Pythium vexans de Barre and Fusarium oxysporum.
Distribution of Disease in Sikkim

-Present in all the four districts of Sikkim irrespective of variety and locality.

Disease Incidence -Medium to High.
Site of Infection  -Leaves, pseudostems , clumbs, rhizomes and roots
Dissemination of the Disease -Through infected planting materials, contaminated tools, soil,   seeds and contaminated irrigation water.


Chlorosis of older leaves.Emerging heart leaf shows necrosis. Splitting of the base of the pseudostem.Brown to black discolouration of the leaf sheath and also discolouration of the vascular tissues. Roots get blackened first followed by rotting and drying up of the whole plants.In grown up seedlings, the infection starts from collar region and spreads into rhizome which first becomes discoloured and subsequently decays.In grown up plants, the pseudostems and rhizomes become soft, ultimately resulting in the death of the clump.Brownish discolouration in the color region of the pseudostem indicates infection of Rhizoctonia. Whereas pinkish discolouration and softness of pseudostem resulting in decay is the symptom of Pythium infection.Sudden wilting of the plant or leaf is the characteristic symptom of the Fusarium wilt.The vascular discolouration from brown to black throughout the pseudostem. The roots show blackening and the bark peeled off easily resulting to drying up of the whole clump.

Favourable environmental condition for disease
Inadequate shades, water stress condition, lack of phyto-sanitation. Nutrient deficient plants are susceptible to diseases of any kind. Weeds in the cardamom field also act as alternate host for the pathogen to persist.

Mode of Transmission
Pathogens are primarily transmitted through infected planting materials (suckers, seedlings). Use of contaminated tools and implements.

Life cycle of Organism
Rouging out the diseased clumps and burning them to avoid spreading of the disease. Maintaining 50% shade trees. Providing irrigation during less rainfall season. Nutrient management through application of FYM.Maintain field sanitation weeding, removing the old cut tillers and debris from the field. Maintain proper spacing 150 cm plant to plant.Soil application of Trichoderma viridie or Trichoderma harzianum (bio-control agent)can suppress the pathogen.Soil drenching or spraying bacillus subtilis mixed with cow urine diluted with water in the ratio of 1:5:10 can also suppress the pathogen.

Bioinformatics Sub- DISC, SSCS&T