Scientific Name Amomum subulatum Roxb.
Local Name Elaichi/ Bara elaichi
Family Zingiberaceae Distribution
State/World wide Sikkim, Darjeeling, Arunachal Pradesh, Bhutan, Nepal
Common Name of Disease: 1. ANTHRACNOSE
Local Name of Disease -Adua Kuhiney Bimar
Causal Organism -Rhizoctonia solani Khun, Pythium vexans de Barre and Fusarium oxysporum.
Distribution of Disease in Sikkim

-Present in all the four districts of Sikkim irrespective ofvariety and locality.

Disease Incidence -Medium to High.
Site of Infection  -Leaves, pseudostems , clumbs, rhizomes and roots
Dissemination of the Disease -Through infected planting materials, contaminated tools, soil,   seeds and contaminated irrigation water.


Water-soaked lesions appear on the leaf margin or on the tips of the leaves which rapidly enlarges, coalesce and cover the entire leaf lamina giving blighted appearance. The advancing lesions are blackish-brown in colour and margins give a yellow halo around it. The affected leaves become necrotic and dry. Leaf sheath covering the pseudo stem shows blackish-brown discoloration which progress down to the rhizome and gradually the pseudo stem becomes brittle and breaks in the middle or at the color region. Eventually, the affected clump dries up completely giving the entire plantation a burnt appearance. Favorable environmental condition for disease: Inadequate shades, water stress condition, lack of phyto-sanitation. Nutrient deficient plants are susceptible to diseases of any kind. Weeds in the cardamom field also act as alternate host for the pathogen to persist.

Mode of Transmission
Pathogens are primarily transmitted through infected planting materials (suckers, seedlings). Use of contaminated tools and implements.

Life cycle of Organism
Plant Protection Measures: Rouging out the diseased clumps and burning them to avoid spreading of the disease. Maintaining 50% shade trees. Providing irrigation during less rainfall season. Nutrient management through application of FYM.Maintain field sanitation weeding, removing the old cut tillers and debris from the field. Maintain proper spacing 150 cm plant to plant.Soil application of Trichoderma viridie or Trichoderma harzianum (bio-control agent)can suppress the pathogen.Soil drenching or spraying bacillus subtilis mixed with cow urine diluted with water in the ratio of 1:5:10 can also suppress the pathogen.

Bioinformatics Sub- DISC, SSCS&T